Barium carbonate (BaCO3) is an inorganic salt. Nitric acid (HNO3) is a mineral acid with strong oxidizing ability. Let us explore the reaction between these two chemicals.

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BaCO3 is a white solid material. It is poorly insoluble in water; however, it is one of the most important compounds for commercial use of barium. It is basic in nature. Colourless HNO3 is a strong acid and highly corrosive. HNO3 is a key chemical in the manufacture of fertilizers, nylon precursors.

In this following article, we will understand the reaction between basic BaCO3 and strong inorganic acid, HNO3 in detail.

What is the product of HNO3 and BaCO3?

Barium nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) salt, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and water (H2O) are formed in reaction between basic BaCO3 and HNO3.  

BaCO3 + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

  • Effervescence of the CO2 from the reaction solution is observed during the reaction.
  • Evolution of CO2 can be proved through different experiments for examples, extinguishing capability of candle flame by evolved gas, or formation of  milky lime water when the gas passes through it etc. 
  • The reaction proceed as a double displacement reaction.
  • BaCO3 + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2CO3
  • H2CO3 = CO2 + H2O
  • H2CO3 further decomposes đồ sộ CO2 and H2O.
  • Therefore, the HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction ends up with the formation of Ba(NO3)2 , H2O and CO2.

What type of reaction is HNO3 + BaCO3?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is a strong acid–weak base based double displacement reaction. Exchanging of both counter anions (nitrate and carbonate) happens in HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction and a more water soluble Ba-salt (Ba(NO3)2)is produced from a sparingly soluble Ba-salt (BaCO3) after double displacement of reactant anions.

How đồ sộ balance HNO3 + BaCO3?

The balanced chemical equation for HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction is,

BaCO3 + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

To find the balanced equation following steps are followed,

  • Write the unbalanced chemical equation for the HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction,
  • BaCO3 + HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2
  • Assign coefficients đồ sộ both reactants and products đồ sộ balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation
  • aBaCO3 + bHNO3 = cBa(NO3)2 + dH2O + eCO2
  • a HBr + b SO3 = c Br+ d SO2 + e H2O
  • Make a linear equation with the above reaction
  • Ba= a= c, C = a = e, O = 3a + 3b = 6c + d + 2e, H = b= 2d, N = b = 2c,
  • Solve the above equation using gauss elimination method
  • a=1, b= 2, c= 1, d= 1, e =1
  • Multiply a coefficient of 1, 2, 1, 1, and 1 with BaCO3, HNO3, Ba(NO3)2, H2O, CO2 respectively in order đồ sộ get a balanced equation
  • Thus, the balanced equation of HNO3 + BaCO3 is :
  • BaCO3 + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

HNO3+ BaCO3 titration?

HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction will be considered as a titration of strong acid and weak base. However, the low solubility of BaCO3 has limited its used in titration,


  • Titration stand,
  • Pipette,
  • Burette,
  • Graduated measuring cylinder,
  • Funnel,
  • Volumetric flask,
  • Beaker,
  • Conical flask,
  • Stirrer (glass rod)


  • Unknown HNO3
  • Known BaCO3
  • Indicators


Methyl Orange, methyl red can be used as indicator as the equivalence point remains in the acidic environment.


In this titration, BaCO3 is titrant and HNO3 is titre. Unknown concentration of HNO3 (C1) can be determined by this method.

  • Initially, the burette was filled with a known concentration of BaCO3 (C2) solution.
  • Then known precise amount of unknown concentration of HNO3 (V1) is pipette out and added in a conical.
  • Dropwise addition of BaCO3 solution is started into conical flak from the burette followed by 2-3 drops of indicator,
  • Addition continues till its color changes from red đồ sộ yellow.
  • The reading in the burette (V2) is noted down to find the concentration of HNO3 (C1V1 = C2V2) .
  • The experiment is repeated for 3 times.

HNO3 + BaCO3 net ionic equation?

The net ionic equation of HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction is shown below,

BaCO3(s)+ 2H+(aq)→ Ba2+(aq)+ H2O(l)+ CO2(g)

To get the net ionic equation of HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction, following steps are followed,

  • Write the balanced molecular equation with state of reactants and products.
  • BaCO3 (s) + 2HNO3 (aq) = Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
  • Split the strong electrolytes in ions and write the complete ionic equation
  • BaCO3 + 2H+ + 2NO3→ Ba2+ + 2NO3 + H2O + CO2
  • Cross out spectator ions on both sides and consider the remaining ions đồ sộ get the net ionic equation
  • Therefore, the net ionic equation will be:
  • BaCO3(s)+ 2H+(aq)→ Ba2+(aq)+ H2O(l)+ CO2(g)

HNO3 + BaCO3 conjugate pairs?

Conjugate pairs for HNO3 and BaCO3 are as follows:

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  • HNO3, releases H+ đồ sộ give NO3 as conjugate pairs.
  • BaCO3 is a salt and has no conjugate pairs.

HNO3 and BaCO3 intermolecular forces?

The intermolecular forces present in HNO3 and Ba(CO3)2 reaction are mentioned below,

  • HNOcontains electrostatic force of attraction between H+ and NO3 ions.
  • Ba(CO3)2 is weak basic salt. It shows moderate electrostatic forces of attraction.
  • CO2 has only London forces.
  • H2O possess strong hydrogen bond, dipole-dipole forces and London dispersion forces due đồ sộ electronegativity differences between O and H atoms.

HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction enthalpy?

The reaction enthalpy for HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction is (ΔH°rxn ) 41.84 kJ.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 a buffer solution?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is not a buffer solution as it contains strong acid HNO3. Buffer solution contains a weak acid and its conjugate base.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 a complete reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is a complete reaction as all the reactant molecules get converted into corresponding stable products.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 an endothermic reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is an endothermic reaction. The reaction enthalpy for this reaction is positive i.e. heat is absorbed during the reaction.

BaCO3 (s) + 2HNO3 (aq) = Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

ΣΔH°f(products) > ΣΔH°f(reactants), ΔH°rxn = 41.84 kJ

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 a redox reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is not a redox rection. HNO3 is a strong oxidizing agent, however in this reaction the oxidation state of N has not changed.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 a precipitation reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is not a precipitation reaction as no solid product is formed in this reaction. The product Ba(NO3)2 is water soluble. CO2 is gas.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 irreversible reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is an irreversible reaction as we can not reverse the direction of the reaction.

Is HNO3 + BaCO3 displacement reaction?

HNO3 + BaCO3 is a double displacement reaction. Nitrate and carbonate anion displace each other and forms Ba(NO3)2 and H2CO3 respectively. Further H2CO3 decomposes đồ sộ CO2 and H2O.

BaCO3 + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2CO3

H2CO3  = H2O + CO2

Double displacement of anions in HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction


HNO3 + BaCO3 reaction produces Ba(NO3)2 salt, H2O and CO2 through a double displacement reaction. Ba(NO3)2 commonly used in pyrotechnics. Inert gas CO2 finds versatile applications in industry as ingredient đồ sộ khuông carbonated beverages, dry ice, urea etc.  

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